6 Remarkable Impact of Globalization on Indian Economy

impact of globalization on Indian economy

Before discussing the impact of globalization on Indian economy we need to understand the term globalization. Referred to the growing interconnectedness between economies worldwide, globalization is characterized by increased trade of goods and services, freer movement of capital, and a greater exchange of ideas and cultures. 

Let us understand globalization in the context of India a bit more briefly. A significant leap was taken in terms of globalization in India with the advent of economic reforms of 1991, these reforms were the turning point in liberalizing trade policies, that allowed for greater foreign investment and participation of the Indian economy in the global market. 

During this process the Indian economy had a profound impact, bringing multiple positive changes within its territory. To dive deep into the topic let us explore six remarkable implications of globalization on India’s economic landscape.

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Looking into the Remarkable Impact of Globalization on Indian Economy

1. Rise of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in India

Rise of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in India

When there is an investment by a foreign entity into a business, infrastructure project, or other asset in a different country, this type of investment by a foreign entity is called Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). FDI is crucial for the growth of the economy of a nation, as it brings capital, technology, and expertise that can be used to develop domestic industries, create jobs, and improve productivity. 

As briefly discussed above, following India’s economic reforms in 1991, FDI inflows went through a dramatic rise. After these reforms, India ranked among the top 12 recipients of FDI globally in 2018 – receiving $42 Billion according to the World Investment Report of 2020 by UNCTAD. This trend of growth continued, with India becoming the 9th largest recipient by 2019, with an inflow of investment of around $ 51 Billion. 

The sectors attracting the most FDI in India vary, but some key players include:

  • Services: This sector consistently receives a significant share of FDI, encompassing industries like telecommunications, financial services, and professional services.
  • Manufacturing: While facing some competition, FDI also flows into manufacturing sectors like automobiles, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals, contributing to technological advancements and modernization.
  • IT: India’s IT sector has been a major magnet for FDI, with foreign companies attracted by the skilled workforce and cost-effectiveness.

The creation of Special Economic Zones, or SEZs, has been essential in luring FDI. These designated zones are appealing places for international businesses to establish operations and make investments in India because they provide tax advantages, streamlined regulations, and top-notch infrastructure.

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2. Boost to Indian Exports

Boost to Indian Exports

Exports refer to goods and services produced domestically but sold to foreign buyers. They play a vital role in an economy by generating foreign currency, promoting economic growth, and creating jobs.

Since globalization opened doors to international markets, Indian exports have witnessed a significant surge. According to the World Trade Organization (WTO), India’s merchandise exports grew by an average of 10% annually between 2005 and 2018. This growth has been particularly prominent in certain sectors:

  • Information Technology (IT): India’s skilled workforce and competitive rates have made it a global leader in IT services exports, encompassing software development, IT support, and business process outsourcing.
  • Textiles and Garments: India’s textile industry has capitalized on globalization to become a major exporter of garments, cotton yarn, and fabrics, leveraging its skilled labor and competitive production costs.
  • Pharmaceuticals: India’s pharmaceutical industry has emerged as a significant exporter of generic drugs, benefiting from its strong scientific research capabilities and cost-effective production.

Trade liberalization agreements play a crucial role in boosting exports by reducing tariffs and other trade barriers between countries. This allows Indian exporters to compete more effectively in international markets and access a wider customer base.

However, Indian exporters face challenges as well. Intense competition from other developing countries, coupled with limitations in infrastructure like logistics and transportation, can hinder export growth. Addressing these challenges will be crucial for India to sustain its export momentum.

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3. Transformation of the Indian IT Sector

Transformation of the Indian IT Sector

Businesses that create, design, implement, and maintain software, hardware, and other technology solutions are included in the IT (Information Technology) industry. It now makes up a major portion of the Indian economy, bringing in money, drawing in international investment, and producing highly skilled jobs.

The growth of the Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) sector in India has been facilitated by globalization. BPO firms offer their global clientele a range of outsourced services, including data entry, customer support, and back-office operations. This sector has advantages such as the production of jobs and foreign exchange profits, but it also has drawbacks such as competition from other emerging countries and the requirement for ongoing skill development for its workers.

India’s emergence as a global IT hub can be attributed to two key factors:

  • Skilled Workforce: India boasts a large pool of skilled IT professionals with strong educational backgrounds and proficiency in various programming languages and technologies.
  • Cost Advantage: Compared to developed nations, India offers competitive rates for IT services, making it an attractive option for businesses seeking cost-effective solutions.

Looking ahead, the future of the Indian IT sector is promising. The rise of digital transformation across industries creates a growing demand for IT services, including cloud computing, cybersecurity, and artificial intelligence. By leveraging its skilled workforce and adapting to evolving technologies, India’s IT sector is well-positioned to maintain its prominent role in the global market.

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4. Modernization of Indian Manufacturing

Modernization of Indian Manufacturing

Before globalization, Indian manufacturing was often characterized by inefficiency, outdated technology, and a focus on import substitution. This limited competitiveness and hindered growth.

Globalization brought a wave of change. Increased competition from foreign companies spurred Indian manufacturers to modernize their operations. Globalization facilitated technology transfer, allowing Indian companies to access and adopt advanced technologies from abroad. This led to improvements in product quality, efficiency, and production processes.

Furthermore, the rise of global production networks presented new opportunities. These networks involve geographically dispersed production stages, with different countries specializing in specific components. India emerged as a vital player in these networks, particularly in sectors like auto components, leveraging its skilled workforce and cost advantages.

However, Indian manufacturers still face challenges. Intense competition from established players, particularly from China, puts pressure on profit margins. Additionally, limitations in infrastructure, such as reliable power supply and efficient transportation systems, can hinder operational efficiency.

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5. Impact of Globalization on Indian Agriculture

Impact of Globalization on Indian Agriculture

Traditionally, Indian agriculture has been dominated by small, landowning farmers using labor-intensive methods and focusing on subsistence farming. Globalization has presented both opportunities and challenges for this sector.

One significant opportunity is the potential for increased exports. Globalization has opened doors for Indian farmers to export high-value agricultural products like fruits, vegetables, and spices to international markets, boosting income and promoting diversification from staple crops.

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6. Increased Foreign Exchange Reserves and Economic Growth

Increased Foreign Exchange Reserves and Economic Growth

Foreign exchange reserves refer to the holdings of foreign currencies and other assets maintained by a central bank. These reserves serve as a critical buffer for a country’s economy, providing resources for various purposes.

Globalization has positively impacted India’s foreign exchange reserves in two key ways:

  • Increased Exports: The surge in Indian exports has led to a greater inflow of foreign currency, boosting reserves.
  • Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): The rise in FDI has also brought in foreign capital, further strengthening reserves.

Healthy foreign exchange reserves contribute to economic growth and stability in several ways:

  • Import Financing: Reserves ensure the availability of foreign currency to pay for essential imports, crucial for maintaining economic activity.
  • Currency Stability: Reserves can be used to intervene in the foreign exchange market, stabilizing the rupee’s exchange rate and preventing sharp fluctuations that could disrupt trade and investment.
  • Investor Confidence: Strong reserves signal a country’s financial health and creditworthiness, fostering investor confidence and promoting further foreign investment.

However, managing foreign exchange reserves effectively requires sound government policies. The government needs to strike a balance between using reserves for necessary interventions and investing them to earn returns, ensuring their long-term sustainability.


Globalization has significantly reshaped the Indian economy, bringing about a wave of positive changes. We’ve explored six key impacts:

Globalization has fueled a multi-faceted boom in the Indian economy. Increased foreign direct investment (FDI) has injected capital, boosting infrastructure development, job creation, and technological advancements. Access to international markets has led to a surge in exports, particularly in IT and textiles. Globalization has also transformed agriculture by introducing modern farming techniques and opening doors for high-value agricultural exports.

The manufacturing sector has undergone a revitalization due to increased competition, forcing modernization and efficiency improvements. Special Economic Zones (SEZs) have attracted further FDI, while the Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry has flourished, creating new employment opportunities. The combined effects of growth in exports and FDI have bolstered India’s foreign exchange reserves, contributing significantly to economic stability and overall growth.

However, it’s important to acknowledge that globalization also presents challenges, such as rising income inequality in India. To ensure continued growth, India needs to navigate globalization with balanced and sustainable policies that promote inclusive development and mitigate potential drawbacks. By doing so, India can leverage the opportunities presented by a globalized world to achieve long-term economic prosperity.

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